(Cohen, 1992; Hupcey, 1998; Kahn, 1979)
Develop a trusting and connection relationship between nurse and family (Eggenberger & Regan, 2010)
· Use nursing presence actions
· Identify family’s greatest concern or challenge and act based upon data
· Ask family to identify how nurses could be the most helpful at this time
· Explore extended family networks
· Dialogue about what family perceives as supports
· Consistently share information with family in timely ways
· Prepare family members for upcoming events
· Teach family about what can be expected
· Develop therapeutic relationship where family perceives nurses as support
· Implement interventions that directly focus on uncertainty in illness events.
· Explore with the family any mixed messages related to the illness or the treatment regime
· Discuss seriousness and prognosis of an illness with all family members and family unit.
· Address the symptoms of an illness with family members and family unit; discuss patterns and trajectory changes in illness; examine expected and actual events.
· Reassure family of presence of nurse.
· Provide factual information
· Help family members structure and attach meaning to events
· Be specific in describing contextual cues such as what patients and families will see, hear and feel during procedures, as well as signs, symptoms, and trajectories.
· Help families anticipate changes and predict and manage changes with education and support.
· Explore past experiences with health care systems and structure providers that may influence their uncertainty now.